Essay: outline and structure of the text


Any text, be it a thesis, abstract, article, story or essay, should have a clear structure.

The essay differs from many other student works by its “creative freedom”. Alas, we all know: the more freedom, the more responsibility. Getting this very freedom, you must think over the structure of the future essay yourself. The structure largely depends on the goals, form, type, volume of work. Essay-narrative will begin with a set, essay-illustration – with one or more theses. Essays like “causal analysis” will have to be built in accordance with the laws of logic. And nothing else

The structure can be simply thought out. But it’s better to take a piece of paper and sketch out a rough outline. The plan is the “skeleton” of the text, on which you will subsequently build up the “flesh”. Any text needs a plan, an essay needs it first of all.

Making a plan

Any written work, any text has:


By “introduction” and “conclusion” you can mean the first and last paragraph. You should not formally refer to these elements of the text. The first paragraph or the first part of the text introduces the reader to the course of the matter, brings him to the problem that the essay is devoted to. There is no need for a long introduction – one or two paragraphs will be enough.

The main part

The main part needs the most attention. Especially when drawing up a plan. It can have a different structure:

Thesis-argumentation, thesis-argumentation, thesis-argumentation, etc. In this case, we first fix the thought, then we prove it;

Reverse structure (facts-inference). We describe the situation or give facts, draw a conclusion. And so – several times.

Thesis and several arguments (facts). In this case, we confirm one thought with several illustrations. The thesis can be both at the beginning and after these illustrations.

By “thesis” we mean a short, complete thought that the author wants to convey to the reader of the essay. Under the argument is some kind of proof of the thesis. It can be a life situation, news, a scientist’s opinion, a scientific theory, or a fact proven by science.

Ideally, one thesis should be supported by two arguments. One may seem unconvincing to the reader, but three will overload the text. However, you are free to bring any number of arguments to your thesis – a lot depends on the thought itself, the logic of the narrative, the volume, the plan of the text. It is important to preserve the consistency, conciseness and imagery of the text.


In conclusion, as a rule, they summarize everything that was said in the essay. The author together with the reader sums up the results. It is important that conclusions are not far-fetched and do not arise “out of nowhere.” In conclusion – only what the reader should come to after reading the main part of your work.

Structure of the main body of the text

It is important that the main part is built according to the laws of logic. You can go from simple to complex, you can carry out analysis or synthesis, use the method of deduction and induction. In order to build a logical text:

– fix the abstracts;

– select several arguments for each thesis;

– line up the theses in a logical sequence: one thought should flow from another.

You will have a detailed plan in front of you. It remains to “build up” the text on it – and your essay will be almost ready. But before you start working on the text, check whether the theses are lined up in a logical sequence and whether the evidence is convincing enough.

Where to begin?

Best of all – with the main body of the text. The introduction and conclusion are easier to add after – after you make sure that the basis of your essay is logical and understandable to the reader. If you took care of the detailed plan, you can write in order – it will be easy.

It also happens that writing an essay is lazy, there is no time or desire. In this case, you can order it. A few hours – and everything will be ready.